1910 - Athens
[Originally intended to be in the third season of The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, that was ultimately never produced. The footage was then paired with "Russia, March 1909" to become "Travels with Father," originally aired on The Family Channel on June 16, 1996]
Henry explains to Indiana that they’re in the birthplace of philosophy, and teaches him about the works of Socrates and Aristotle, along with the latter’s system of logic known as syllogism. He states that Aristotle’s reasoning was a turning point in mankind, as it separated humans from every other species in the world, and it’s that same form of deductive reasoning that continues to unlock the great mysteries of our universe and existence.
En route to the hanging monastery in Kalambaka, they lose their cab and get dismissed from another, thus are left to trek on foot for the remainder of their journey. On the way Henry teaches Indiana further about the contributions of Ancient Greeks.
Once they arrive they are greeted by Monks who are set to begin a two-day vow of silence, and as Henry begins to translate texts he makes Indiana write him three pages on Aristotelian logic and its relation to causality.
Indiana then meets a man named Nikos Kazantzakis who is also studying texts at the monastery, and he helps Indiana understand the theory of causality; explaining that nature does not act without a cause.
Indiana then asks about the cause of nature, and Nikos offers a sentiment about the divine power of God - along with emphasizing the distinction between logic and wisdom - the latter of which he says is greater than the former - although it leaves you to accept certain truths without proper evidence.
Indiana then hands Henry his report and his father is impressed, although he disagrees that wisdom is greater than logic. They then say goodbye to the monks and enter an elevator cage to bring them back to the surface, however the mechanics of elevator fails them and they become stranded without food, water, or proper shelter.
That same night they start a fire using wood from the elevator to keep warm, however, the cage itself lights on fire and creates a hole in the floorboard. Henry then tries to climb up the rope that the cage is hanging from, yet his fear of heights leaves him frozen in place, whereas that same rope begins to fray leaving their time running short.
Indiana then suggests they use logic to find a solution, and comes up with the idea to use excess wood and rope found within the cage to create a makeshift ladder, which will subsequently lead them to safety.
Henry and Indiana manage to just escape before the cage plummets to the ground, and upon reaching the mountaintop they realize the monk that had been controlling the pulley had been knocked unconscious accidently, thus shedding light on their ordeal that was thankfully over and done with.
Henry and Indiana then embrace one another realizing that the conflict had brought them closer together, and they both make a pact to keep the details to themselves, rather than share the story with his mother or Miss Seymour.
Therefore during his first time in Greece, Indiana studies:
Aristotle - whom he previously had learned about in Italy (in comparison to the findings of Galileo), yet this time the focus was on syllogism (a logical argument that uses deductive reasoning to reach a conclusion assumed to be true), along with causality (the relationship between cause and effect, as well as the principle that everything has a cause)
Socrates - Greek philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, he is best known through the writings of his pupils Plato and Xenophon, along with his contemporary Aristophanes. His teachings have inspired Socratic irony and Socratic method, among many other ways of discourse that are widely used in Western society.
Plato - Greek philosopher who was the student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle, he is widely considered the most pivotal figure in the history of philosophy, where unlike his contemporaries - the entirety of his work is believed to have survived after 2,400 years. He also founded of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
He also directly interacts with:
Nikos Kazantzakis - Greek writer nominated for the Nobel Prize of Literature in nine different years, he’s best known for his works Zorba the Greek (1946) and The Last Temptation of Christ (1955), and is universally recognized as a giant of modern Greek literature.
Monks of the Greek Monasteries - The monasteries at Meteora (which borders Kalambaka) were created to serve monks and nuns following the teachings of the Eastern Orthodox Church. In the 16th century there were as many as 24 monasteries, yet today there are only six that are functional, while the rest are in ruins - thanks in part to major damage that was inflicted during WWII.